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Agricultural Engineering is the engineering discipline that studies agricultural production and processing. A key goal of this discipline is to improve the efficacy and sustainability of agricultural practices. Agricultural engineering is concerned with tasks such as planning, supervising and managing the building of dairy effluent schemes, irrigation, drainage, flood water control systems, performing environmental impact assessments, agricultural product processing and interpret research results and implement relevant practices. Some are consultants, employed by private engineering firms while others work in industry for manufacturers of agricultural machinery, equipment, processing technology, and structures for housing livestock and storing crops. Agricultural engineers work in production, sales, management, research and development, or applied science.
Agriculture & Food Security addresses the challenges of global food security. It is concerned with food security research with a particular focus on more sustainable agriculture and food systems that better address local, regional, national and/or global food and nutritional insecurity. The scope of the study include agricultural and environmental sciences, including genetics and systems ecology; animal husbandry, fisheries science and plant science; global change, biodiversity, climatology and abiotic stresses; food technology and balancing agricultural outputs across food, feed, fibre and fuel; economics, information sciences and decision theory; strategies for the implementation of new policies and practices; public health in relation to the condition of food and nutritional security
Crop science is concerned with selection and improvement of crops. It includes research and development on production techniques, improving agriculture productivity, minimizing the effects of pest, planting, maintenance, protection, harvesting and storage aspects of post-harvest. Advances in Crop Science and Technology is the field dealing with the selection, breeding, crop productivity, seed production, organic cover crops, crop technology transpiration, field crops research, domestic animals, crop and irrigation technology. Crop technology is the application of organized and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. Technological interventions like dwarfing gene, hybrid technology, biotechnology, seed technologies and agronomic technologies will increase the crop production. Crop productivity is the quantitative measure of crop yield in given measured area of field. The use of new crop varieties and the efficient application of agrochemicals, immensely contributed to increased plant productivity.
Agricultural biotechnology also known as agritech is an area of agricultural science involving the use of scientific tools and techniques, including genetic engineering, molecular markers, molecular diagnostics, vaccines, and tissue culture, to modify living organisms: plants, animals, and microorganisms. Farmers have manipulated plants and animals through selective breeding for tens of thousands of years in order to create desired traits. In the 20th century, a surge in technology resulted in an increase in agricultural biotechnology through the selection of traits like increased yield, pest resistance, drought resistance, and herbicide resistance. The first food product produced through biotechnology was sold in 1990, and by 2003, 7 million farmers were utilizing biotech crops. More than 85% of these farmers were located in developing countries.
The environmental impact of agriculture is the effect that different farming practices have on the ecosystems around them, and how those effects can be traced back to those practices. The environmental impact of agriculture varies based on the wide variety of agricultural practices employed around the world. Ultimately, the environmental impact depends on the production practices of the system used by farmers. The connection between emissions into the environment and the farming system is indirect as it also depends on other climate variables such as rainfall and temperature. The environmental impact of agriculture involves a variety of factors from the soil, to water, the air, animal and soil variety, people, plants, and the food itself. Some of the environmental issues that are related to agriculture are climate change, deforestation, genetic engineering, irrigation problems, pollutants, soil degradation, and waste.
Agroforestry is a land use management system in which trees or shrubs are grown around or among crops or pastureland. This intentional combination of agriculture and forestry has varied benefits, including increased biodiversity and reduced erosion. The theoretical base for agroforestry comes from ecology, via agroecology. Agroforestry is one of the three principal agricultural land-use sciences. The other two are agriculture and forestry. Agroforestry shares principles with intercropping. Both place two or more plant species such as nitrogen-fixing plants in close proximity and both provide multiple outputs. As a consequence, overall yields are higher and because a single application or input is shared, costs are reduced. Agroforestry systems can be advantageous over conventional agricultural, and forest production methods. They can offer increased productivity, economic benefits, and more diversity in the ecological goods and services provided.
The objectives of Soil and Water Management are to provide students, farmers, and agriculturists with an understanding of the complexities and challenges facing agriculture today. The aim of soil science and water management is to conduct research, educate students, to utilize creative approaches to gain understanding and develop solutions for soil and water conservation and management problems, and transfer technologies to improve soil and water conservation through alternative and proven management practices. The study focuses on soil and water management as it relates to relevant issues surrounding agriculture and sustainability. Concepts include soil quality, wind and water erosion, water quantity and quality and corresponding environmental and societal issues.
Controlling insects and other artthropods has become an increasingly complex issue over the past two decades. Minimizing losses due to insect pests and insect vectors of important plant, animal, and human diseases remains an essential component of entomology studies. Nonetheless, the deleterious effects associated with the use of chemicals such as development of insect resistance to insecticides, poisonous residues on foodstuffs, human illnesses associated with pesticide applications, contamination of soil and water, and diminution of biotic diversity must be reduced or eliminated. As a result, considerable emphasis has been placed on tactics other than chemical controls, including biological, cultural, and genetic methods and the deployment of varieties resistant to pests.
Fertilizers help in plant growth and pesticides work as a safeguard against pests. A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances designed for preventing, destroying, repelling or lessening the damage of a pest. Fertilizers are compounds that are added to plants to promote growth. There are two types of fertilizers, organic and inorganic. Organic fertilizers are carbon based and are composed of organic matter like leaves, cow dung and parts of plants. Inorganic fertilizers contain simple inorganic chemicals. Some of the common nutrients present in fertilizers are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NKP). They also contain secondary plant nutrients such as calcium, sulphur and magnesium. Some special fertilizers contain trace elements or micronutrients for the nutrition of plants like boron, chlorine, manganese, iron, zinc, copper and molybdenum. It is vital that farmers know the exact combination of fertilizers to be used for a certain crop to avoid damage through excessive or improper use.
Soil properties are important considerations in areas where soils are used as sites for the treatment and disposal of organic waste and wastewater. Selection of soils with properties that favor waste management can help to prevent environmental damage. There is a need to know the degree and kind of soil limitations affecting the treatment of agricultural waste, including municipal and food-processing wastewater and effluent from lagoons or storage ponds. Food-processing wastewater results from the preparation of fruits, vegetables, milk, cheese, and meats for public consumption. In places it is high in content of sodium and chloride. Domestic and food-processing wastewater is very dilute, and the effluent from the facilities that treat or store it commonly is very low in content of carbonaceous and nitrogenous material.
Horticulture refers to the growing of plants in a field or garden. Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants such as fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar. It also includes plant conservation, landscape restoration, soil management, landscape and garden design, construction, and maintenance, and arboriculture. In contrast to agriculture, horticulture does not include large-scale crop production or animal husbandry. Horticulture applies technologies to grow intensively produced plants for human food and non-food uses and for personal or social needs. Their work involves plant propagation and cultivation with the aim of improving plant growth, yields, quality, nutritional value, and resistance to insects, diseases, and environmental stresses. Horticulturists need skills, experience and expertise to work as gardeners, growers, therapists, designers, and technical advisors in the food and non-food sectors of horticulture.
Managing food and nutrients is a key to good health. Smart nutrition and food choices can help prevent disease. A healthy diet includes a lot of natural foods. A sizeable portion of a healthy diet should consist of fruits and vegetables, especially ones that are red, orange, or dark green. Whole grains, such as whole wheat and brown rice, should also play a part in your diet. Food and nutrition are the way that we get fuel providing energy for our bodies. We need to replace nutrients in our bodies with a new supply every day. Water is an important component of nutrition. Fats, proteins, and carbohydrates are all required. Maintaining key vitamins and minerals are also important to maintaining good health. For pregnant women and adults over 50 need to take vitamins such as vitamin D and minerals such as calcium and iron in their dietary supplements.